Maxfacts

Maxfacts is currently a work-in-progress, many areas of the site are incomplete.

Diagnosis

General

Textbooks

J.C. Watkinson and P.W. Gilbert (eds.). Stell & Maran’s Textbook of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, 5th ed., CRC Press, Philapelphia, 2012.

D.A. Mitchell and A.N. Kanatas. An Introduction to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2015.

P. Brennan et al. (eds.). Maxillofacial Surgery, 3rd ed., Churchill Livingstone, London, 2016.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

Electronic resources

The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons; www.baoms.org.uk

Royal College of Surgeons; https://www.rcseng.ac.uk

British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; www.bjoms.com

The American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons; www.aaoms.org

The British Association of Head and Neck Oncologists; www.bahno.org.uk

The British Orthodontic Society; www.bos.org.uk

The European Association of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery; www.eurofaces.com

The International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons; www.iaoms.org

Benign lumps

Textbooks

J.V. Soames and J.C. Southam, Oral pathology, 4th ed., Oxford University Press, 2005.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

K.A.O.M. Chapelle et al. Rational approach to diagnosis and treatment of ameloblastomas and odontogenic keratocysts. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 42, 381-390 (2004).

Bone lesions (benign and malignant)

Textbooks

J. Prein, W. Remagen, B. Spiessl and E. Uehlinger. Atlas of Tumors of the Facial Skeleton: Odontogenic and Nonodontogenic Tumors. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1986.

J.S. Wu and M. G. Hochman. Bone Tumors: A Practical Guide to Imaging. Springer, New York, 2012.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

M. Harmon, M. Arrigan, M. Toner and S.A. O’Keefe. A radiological approach to benign and malignant lesions of the mandible. Clinical Radiology 70, 335-350 (2015).

D.J. Theodorou, S.J. Theodorou and D.J. Sartoris. Primary non-odontogenic tumors of the jawbones. An overview of essential radiographic findings. Journal of Clinical Imaging 27, 59-70 (2003).

P. Bianco et al. Mutations of the GNAS1 gene, stromal cell dysfunction, and osteomalacic changes in non-McCune-Albright fibrous dysplasia of bone. Journal of bone and mineral research 15, 120-128 (2000).

C. Cooper et al. The Epidemiology of Paget’s Disease in Britain. Is the Prevalence Decreasing? Journal of bone and mineral research 14, 192-197 (1999).

A. Tan and S.H. Ralston. Paget’s disease of bone. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 107, 865-869 (2014).

R.K. Lalam et al. Paget Disease of Bone. Seminars in muscoskeletal radiology 20, 287-299 (2016).

G.J. Ridder et al. Central skull base osteomyelitis: new insights and implications for diagnosis and treatment. European Archives of Otorhinolaryngology 272, 1269-1276 (2015).

J.S. Lee et al. Clinical guidelines for the management of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia. Journal of Rare Diseases 7 (suppl), 1-19 (2012).

S.A. Savage and L. Mirabello. Using Epidemiology and Genomics to Understand Osteosarcoma Etiology. Sarcoma (2011). doi:10.1155/2001/548151

E. de Alava and W.I. Gerald. Molecular biology of the Ewing’s sarcoma / primitive neuroectodermal tumor family. Journal of Clinical Oncology 18, 204-213 (2000).

K. Saito, K. Unni, P.C. Wollan and B.A. Lund. Chondrosarcoma of the Jaw and Facial Bones. Cancer 76, 1550-1558 (1995).

R.B. Smith et al. National Cancer Data Base Report on Osteosarcoma of the Head and Neck. Cancer 98, 1670-1680 (2003).

A.K. Freeman, V.P. Sumathi and L. Jeys. Primary malignant tumours of the bone. Surgery 36, 27-34 (2017).

M. Kreppel and J. Zöller. Ameloblastoma – Clinical, radiological and therapeutic findings. Oral Diseases 24, 63-66 (2018).

Cancer – facial skin, mouth and salivary glands

Textbooks

F. Riffat, C.E. Palme and M. Veness (eds). Non-melanoma Skin Cancer of the Head and Neck, Springer, New Delhi, Heidelberg, 2015.

E. Stockfleth, T. Rosen and S. Schumaak (eds.). Managing Skin Cancer, Springer, Heidelberg, 2010.

A. Hendi and J.-C. Martinez. Atlas of Skin Cancers. Practical Guide to Diagnosis and Treatment, Springer, Heidelberg, 2011.

J.P. Shaw, N.W. Johnson and J.G. Batsakis. Oral cancer, Martin Dunitz, London, 2003.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

K.D. Olsen and J.E. Lewis. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma: a clinicopathological review. Head and Neck 23, 705-712 (2001).

T.K. Ong, C. Murphy, A.B. Smith, A.N. Kanatas and D.A. Mitchell. Survival after surgery for oral cancer: a 30-year experience. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 55, 911-916 (2017).

C. Tomasetti, L. Li and B. Vogelstein. Stem cell divisions, somatic mutations, cancer etiology, and cancer prevention. Science 355, 1330-1334 (2017).

A.Rinaldo, A.R.Shaha, P.K.Pellitteri, P.J.Bradley and A.Ferlito. Management of malignant sublingual salivary gland tumours. Oral Oncology 40, 2-5 (2004).

A. Kolk, K.-D. Wolff, R. Smeets et al. Melanotic and non-melanotic malignancies of the face and external ear – A review of current treatment concepts and future options. Cancer Treatment Reviews 40, 819-837 (2014).

F. López et al. Update on primary head and neck mucosal melanoma. Head & Neck 38, 147-155 (2016).

S. Marur et al. HPV-associated Head and Neck Cancer: A Virus-related Cancer Epidemic – A Review of Epidemiology, Biology, Virus Detection and Issues in Management. Lancet Oncology 11, 781-789 (2010).

V.B. Ad and A. Chalian. Management of clinically negative neck for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas in the modern era. Oral Oncology 44, 817-822 (2008).

J.A. Woolgar. Histopathological prognosticators in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Oncology 42, 229-239 (2006).

B. Vogelstein and K.W. Kinzler. The Path to Cancer – Three Strikes and You’re Out. New England Journal of Medicine 373, 1895-1898 (2015).

The Cancer Genome Atlas Network. Comprehensive genomic characterization of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Nature 517, 576-582 (2015).

M. Jessri, A.J. Dalley and C.S Farah, Deficient double-strand break repair in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine 46, 695-702 (2017).

D. Schadendorf et al. Melanoma. The Lancet 392, 971-984 (2018).

Electronic resources

The National Cancer Institute (United States) www.cancer.gov

In the UK: www.ncri.org.uk

Cleft lip / palate and craniofacial syndromes

Textbooks

R.C.M. Hennekam, J.E. Allanson and I.D. Krantz. Gorlin’s Syndromes of the Head and Neck, 5th ed., Oxford University Press, New York, 2010.

T.A. Turvey, K.W.L. Vig and R.J. Fonseca (eds.). Facial clefts and craniosynosthosis: principles and management. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1996.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

V. Kimonos et al. Genetics of craniosynostosis. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology 14, 150-161 (2007).

A.O. Wilkie. Craniosynostosis: Genes and Mechanisms. Human Molecular Genetics 6, 647-656 (1997).

A.O. Wilkie and G.M. Morris-Kay. Genetics of craniofacial development and malformation. Nature Review Genetics 2, 458-468 (2001).

P. Rutland et al. Identical mutations in the fgfr2 gene cause both Pfeiffer and Crouzon syndrome phenotypes. Nature Genetics 9, 173-176 (1995).

M. Muenke et al. A unique point mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene (FGFR3) defines a new craniosynostosis syndrome. American Journal of Human Genetics 60, 555-564 (1997).

A.J. Yoon, B.N. Pham and K.M. Dipple. Genetic Screening in Patients with Craniofacial Malfomations. Journal of Pediatric Genetics 5, 220-224 (2016).

J.V. Pattisapu et al. Craniosynostosis: diagnosis and surgical management. Atlas of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America 18, 77-91 (2010).

A.C. van Lierop and J.J. Fagan. Buccinator myomucosal flap: clinical results and review of anatomy, surgical technique and applications. The Journal of Laryngology and Otology 122, 181-187 (2008).

T. de Jong et al. Long-term functional outcome in 167 patients with syndromic craniosynostosis; defining a syndrome-specific risk profile. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery 63, 1635-1641 (2010).

Cysts

Textbooks

M. Shear and P.M. Speight. Cysts of the Oral and Maxillofacial Regions, 4th ed., Oxford, John Wiley & Sons, 2008.

J.V. Soames and J.C. Southam, Oral pathology, 4th ed., Oxford University Press, 2005.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

K.A.O.M. Chapelle et al. Rational approach to diagnosis and treatment of ameloblastomas and odontogenic keratocysts. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 42, 381-390 (2004).

Dysphagia

Textbooks

J.A. Cichero and B.E. Murdoch (eds.). Dysphagia: Foundation, Theory and Practice. John Wiley, Chichester, 2006.

K.W. Altman (ed.). Dysphagia: Diagnosis and Management. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America; Vol. 46, No. 6. Elsevier, Philadelphia, 2013.

R.Shaker, P.G. Belafsky, G.N. Postma and C. Easterling (eds.). Principles of Deglutition. A Multidisciplinary Text for Swallowing and its Disorders, Springer, New York Heidelberg, 2013.

R. Leonard and K. Kendall (eds.). Dysphagia. Assessment and Treatment Planning. Plural Publishing, San Diego, 2019.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

S.N. King et al. Pathophysiology of Radiation-Induced Dysphagia in Head and Neck Cancer. Dysphagia 31, 229-251 (2016).

R. Schindler et al. Dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and systemic therapies: Literature review and consensus. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 96, 372-384 (2015).

D. Alterio et al. Radiation-induced acute dysphagia. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 193, 971-981 (2017).

N.M. Rogus-Pulia et al. Effects of Change in Tongue Pressure and Salivary Flow Rate on Swallow Efficiency Following Chemoradiation Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer. Dysphagia 31, 687-696 (2016).

O.J. Ilegbusi et al. Mathematical modelling of tongue deformation during swallow in patients with head and neck cancer. Mathematical and computer modelling of dynamical systems 22, 569-583 (2016).

K. Matsuo and J.B. Palmer. Coordination of Mastication, Swallowing and Breathing. The Japanese Dental Science Review 45, 31-40 (2009).

A.Sasegbon and S. Hamdy. The anatomy and physiology of normal and abnormal swallowing in oropharyngeal dysphagia. Neurogastroenterology & Motility 29:313100 (2017).

A.M. Beck et al. Systematic review and evidence based recommendations on texture modified food and thickened liquids for adults (above 17 years) with oropharyngeal dysphagia – An updated clinical guideline. Clinical Nutrition, in press (2017).

K.A. Hutcheson et al. Late Dysphagia after Radiotherapy-Based Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer. Cancer 5793-5799 (2012).

S.A. Kraaijenga et al. Current assessment and treatment strategies of dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients: a systematic review of the 2012/13 literature. Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care 8, 152-163 (2014).

Dysplasia / oral mucosal lesions

Textbooks

M.A. Kuriakose (ed.). Contemporary Oral Oncology: Biology, Epidemiology, Etiology and Prevention, Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, 2017.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

S.R. Porter, V. Mercadente and S. Fedele. Oral manifestations of systemic disease. BDJ Team 5, article number 18012 (2018). doi:10.1038/bdjteam.2018.12

B.T. Yuhan et al. Benign and Malignant Oral Lesions in Children and Adolescents. An Organized Approach to Diagnosis and Management. Pediatric Clinics of North America 65, 1033-1050 (2018).

S. Casparis, J.M. Borm, S. Tektas et al. Oral lichen planus (OLP), oral lichenoid lesions (OLL), oral dysplasia, and oral cancer: retrospective analysis of clinicopathological data from 2002-2011. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 19, 149-156 (2015).

S.Warnakulasuriya, N.W. Johnson and I. van der Waal. Nomenclature and classification of potentially malignant disorders of the oral mucosa. Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 36, 575-580 (2007).

L. Zhang et al. Impact of localized treatment in reducing risk of progression of low-grade oral dysplasia: molecular evidence of incomplete resection. Oral Oncology 37, 505-512 (2001).

F. Dost et al. Malignant transformation of oral epithelial dysplasia: a real-world evaluation of histopathologic grading. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology 117, 343-352 (2014).

M.W. Ho et al. The clinical determinants of malignant transformation in oral epithelial dysplasia. Oral Oncology 48, 969-976 (2012).

S.M.H. Aghbari et al. Malignant transformation of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions: A meta-analysis of 20095 patient data. Oral Oncology 68, 92-102 (2017).

L. Zhang, T. Lubpairee, D.M. Laronde and M.P. Rosin. Should severe epithelial dysplasia be treated? Oral Oncology 60, 125-129 (2017).

P. Holmstrup. Oral eythroplakia – What is it? Oral Diseases 24, 138-143 (2018).

A.B. Soares, K. Perschbacher and B. Perez-Ordonez. Oral potentially malignant disorders. Diagnostic Histophathology 24, 161-165 (2018).

V. de Sanctis et al. Mucositis in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and systemic therapies: Literature review and consensus statements. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 100, 147-168 (2016).

C. Scully and M. Carrozzo. Oral mucosal disease: Lichen planus. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 46, 15-21 (2008).

C. Scully and J. Bagan. Oral mucosal disease: Erythema multiforme. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 46, 90-95 (2008).

C. Scully and S. Porter. Oral mucosal disease: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 46, 198-206 (2008).

C. Scully and M. Mignogna. Oral mucosal disease: Pemphigus. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 46, 272-277 (2008).

C. Scully and L. Lo Mazio. Oral mucosal disease: Mucous membrane pemphigoid. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 46, 358-366 (2008).

P.G. Arduino et al. Urban legends series: oral leukoplakia. Oral Diseases 19, 642-659 (2013).

C. Scully. Challenges in predicting which oral mucosal potentially malignant disease will progress to neoplasia. Oral Diseases 20, 1-5 (2014).

S. Warnakulasuriya and A. Ariyawardana. Malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia: a systematic review of observational studies. Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine 45, 155-166 (2016).

A. Villa and S. Sonis. Oral leukoplakia remains a challenging condition. Oral Diseases 24, 179-183 (2018).

P. Güneri and J.B. Epstein. Why are we still unable to accurately determine the malignant potential of the behaviour of oral mucosal lesions? Oral Oncology 71, 177-179 (2017).

S. Leuci et al. Oral autoimmune vesicobullous diseases: Classification, clinical presentations, molecular mechanisms, diagnostic algorithms, and management. Periodontology 2000 9, 77-88 (2019).

Z.B. Kurago. Etiology and pathogenesis of oral lichen planus: an overview. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology 122, 72-80 (2016).

Ectopic teeth

Textbooks

M.F. Teaford, M.M. Smoth and M.W.J. Ferguson (eds.). Development, Function and Evolution of Teeth. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000.

D.A. Mitchell and L. Mitchell. Oxford handbook of clinical dentistry (6th ed.). Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2014.

A. Becker. The orthodontic treatment of impacted teeth (3rd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, 2012.

J. Lindhe, N.P. Lang and T. Karring. Clinical periodontology and implant dentistry (3rd ed.). Copenhagen-Munksgaard, 2003.

L. Mitchell. An introduction to orthodontics (4th ed.). Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2013.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

C.A. Adde et al. Clinical and surgical evaluation of the indication of postoperative antibiotic prescription in third molar surgery. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology 114, S26-S31 (2012).

M. Macluskey et al. Indications for and anticipated difficulty of third molar surgery: a comparison between a dental hospital and a specialist high street practice. British Journal of Dentistry 199, 671-675 (2005).

Facial appearance and jaw disproportion

Textbooks

J.B. Nadol and M.L. McKenna (eds.). Surgery of the ear and temporal bone. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2015.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

S. Eremia and M.A. Willoughb. Rhytidectomy. Dermatologic Clinics 23, 415-430 (2005).

R.J. Choucair and S.T. Hamra. Extended superficial musculaponeurotic system dissection and composite rhytidectomy. Clinics in Plastic Surgery 35, 607-622 (2008).

R.J. Warren, S.J. Aston and B.C. Mendelson. Face lift. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 128, 747e-764e (2011).

B.C. Mendelson. Cosmetic surgery for the ageing face. Australian Family Physician 21, 907-910, 913-915, 918-919 (1992).

G.R.J. Swennen, W. Moellemans and F. Schutyser. Three-Dimensional Planning of Orthognathic Surgery in the Era of Virtual Planning. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 67, 2080-2092 (2009).

Infection (including abscess, fistula)

Textbooks

R.G. Topazian, M.H. Goldberg and J.R. Hupp (eds.). Oral and Maxillofacial Infections, 4th ed., Saunders, Philadelphia, 2002.

J.L. Jones and L.M. Candelaria. Head and Neck Infections. In:  R.I. Fonseca (ed.) Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, volume 5, Saunders, Philadelphia, 2000.

D. Schlossberg (ed.). Infections of the Head and Neck. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.

R. Anderson, P. Groundwater, A. Todd and A. Worsley. Antibacterial Agents: Chemistry, Mode of Action, Mechanisms of Resistance and Clinical Applications, 1st ed., Wiley, 2012.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

A.L. Byrd, Y. Belkaid and J.A. Segre. The human skin microbiome. Nature Reviews 157,1-18 (2018).

D. Artis. Epithelial-cell recognition of commensal bacteria and maintenance of immune homeostasis in the gut. Nature Reviews Immunology 8, 411-420 (2008).

H. Tlaskalova-Hogenova et al. Commensal bacteria (normal microflora),mucosal immunity and chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Immunology Letters 93, 97-108 (2004).

A.J. Macpherson et al. A primitive T Cell-Independent Mechanism of Intestinal Mucosal IgA Responses to Commensal Bacteria. Science 288, 2222-2226 (2000).

P. Le Conte et al. Recognition and treatment of severe sepsis in the emergency department: retrospective study in two French teaching hospitals. BMC Emergency Medicine 17, 27 (2017). doi: 10.1186/s12873-017-0133-6

M. Singer et al. The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). Journal of the American Medical Association 315, 801-810 (2016). doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.0287

S.P.J. Macdonald et al. Sepsis in the emergency department – Part 1: Definitions and outcomes. Emergency Medicine Australasia (2017). doi: 10.1111/1742-6723.12886

F. Prechter et al. Sleeping with the enemy: Clostridium difficile infection in the intensive care unit. Critical Care 21, 260 (2017). doi: 10.1186/s13054-017-1819-6

A. Mirabile et al. Sepsis in head and neck cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and radiation: Literature review and consensus. Critical Reviews in Oncology / Hematology 95, 191-213 (2015).

J.E. Gotts and M.A. Matthay. Sepsis: pathophysiology and clinical management. British Medical Journal 353:i1585 (2016). doi: 10.1136/bmj.i1585

D.G. Remick. Pathophysiology of Sepsis. The American Journal of Pathology 170,1435-1444 (2007).

G. Ridder et al. Central skull base osteomyelitis: new insights and implications for diagnosis and treatment. European Archives of Otorhinolaryngology 272, 1269-1276 (2015).

D.J. Stearns-Kurosawa et al. The Pathogenesis of Sepsis. Annual Reviews of Pathology 6, 19-48 (2011).

E. Kirby et al. Bioassay studies support the potential for iatrogenic transmission of variant Creutzfeld Jakob disease through dental procedures. PloS One 11, e49850 (2012).

Jaw joint and facial pain, neuropathies

Textbooks

R. Gray, S. Danes and A. Quayle. Temporomandibular disorders: a clinical approach, BDJ Books, London, 1995.

R. Gray and Z. Al-Ani. Temporomandibular Disorders: A Problem-Based Approach, Wiley, Chichester, 2011.

Y. Sharav and R. Benoliel (eds.). Orofacial Pain and Headache, Elsevier, Edinburgh, London, 2008.

S.B. McMahon, M. Koltzenburg, I. Tracey and D. Turk (eds.). Wall and Melzack’s Textbook of Pain, 6th ed., Elsevier, Philadelphia, 2013.

P.J. Dyck (ed.). Peripheral Neuropathy, 4th ed., Saunders, 2005.

M. Milaro (ed.). Trigeminal Nerve Injuries, Springer, Heidelberg, New York, 2013.

D.E Haines. Neuroanatomy: Structures, Sections, and Systems, 7th ed., Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 2007.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

R. Baron, A. Binder and G. Wasner. Neuropathic pain: diagnosis, pathophysiological mechanisms, and treatment. Lancet Neurology 9, 807-819 (2010).

P. Coulthard et al. Interventions for iatrogenic inferior alveolar and lingual nerve injury (Review). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Review 4, CD005293 (2014). DOI: 10.1002/14651858. CD005293.pub2

C.H. Wilkes. Internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: pathologic variations. Archives of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery 115, 469-477 (1989).

E.A. Tawfik, F.O. Walker and M.S. Cartwright. Neuromuscular Ultrasound of Cranial Nerves. Journal of Clinical Neurology 11, 109-121 (2015).

L. Dercle et al. Diagnostic and prognostic value of 18F-FDG PET, CT and MRI in perineural spread of head and neck malignancies. European Radiology 28, 1761-1779 (2018).

T.B. Ableman and S.A. Newman. Perineural Spread of Head and Neck Cancer: Ophthalmic Considerations. Journal of Neurological Surgery – Part B 77, 131-139 (2016).

T.A. Warren et al. Insight into the epidemiology of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with perineural spread. Head and Neck 38, 1416-1420 (2016).

D.J. Snyder and L.M. Bartoshuk. Oral sensory nerve damage: Causes and consequences. Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders 17, 149-158 (2016).

R.L. Doty. Olfactory dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases: is there a common pathological substrate? The Lancet Neurology 11, 478-488 (2017).

S.K. Jääskeläinen. Is burning mouth syndrome a neuropathic pain condition? Pain 159, 610-613 (2018).

T.J. Eviston et al. Bell’s palsy: aetiology, clinical features and multidisciplinary care. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 86, 1356-1361 (2015).

W. Dieb et al. Neuropathic pain in the orofacial region: The role of pain history. A retrospective study. Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 118, 147-150 (2017).

M.D. Allen et al. Physiology in Medicine: neuromuscular consequences of diabetic neuropathy. Journal of Applied Physiology 121, 1-6 (2016).

D.L. Hershman et al. Prevention and Management of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Survivors of Adult Cancers: Amercian Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guidelines. Journal of Clinical Oncology 32, 1941-1967 (2014).

S. Delanian, J.-L. Lefaix and P.-F. Pradat. Radiation-induced neuropathy in cancer survivors. Radiotherapy and Oncology 105, 273-282 (2012).

J.O. Agbaje et al. Neuropathy of Trigeminal Nerve Branches after Oral and Maxillofacial Treatment. Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery 15, 321-327 (2016).

T. Renton. Chronic orofacial pain. Oral Diseases 23, 566-571 (2017).

Necrosis (hard and soft tissues)

Textbooks

H.-M. Shen and P. Vandenbeele (eds.). Necrotic Cell Death, Springer, New York, Heidelberg, 2014.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

S.Y. Proskuryakov, A.G. Konoplyannikov and V.L. Gabai. Necrosis: a specific form of programmed cell death? Experimental Cell Research 283, 1-16 (2003).

M.R. Allen and D.B. Burr. The Pathogenesis of Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: So Many Hypotheses, So Few Data. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 67, 61-70 (2009).

J.C. Lo et al. Prevalence of Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in Patiens with Oral Bisphosphonate Exposure. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 68, 243-253 (2010).

R. Landesberg et al. Inhibition of Oral Mucosal Cell Wound Healing by Bisphosphonates. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 66, 839-847 (2008).

J. Bagan et al. Osteonecrosis of the jaws in patients treated with intravenous bisphosphonates (BRONJ): a concise update. Oral Oncology 45, 551-554 (2009).

Y. Gadiwalla and V. Patel. Osteonecrosis of the jaw unrelated to medication or radiotherapy. Oral Medicine 125, 446-453 (2018).

A. Lyons and N. Ghazali. Osteoradionecrosis of the jaws: current understanding of its pathophysiology and treatment. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 46, 653-660 (2008).

A. Chronopoulos et al. Osteoradionecrosis of the jaws: definition, epidemiology, staging and clinical and radiological findings. A concise review. International Dental Journal 68, 22-30 (2018).

T. Mücke et al. Bisphosphonate and Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: A Review. Seminars in Muscoskeletal Radiology 20, 305-314 (2016).

M. Akashi et al. Heterogeneity of Necrotic Changes between Cortical and Cancellous Bone in Mandibular Osteoradionecrosis: A Histopathological Analysis of Resection Margin after Segmental Mandibulectomy. BioMed Research International, article ID 3125842 (2017).

M. Akashi et al. Differences between osteoradionecrosis and medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 22, 59-63 (2018).

M.Akashi et al. Potential role of post-treatment follow-up FDG-PET CT to detect mandibular osteoradionecrosis: A case report. Molecular and Clinical Oncology 8, 61-67 (2018).

C. Gross et al. Osteoclast profile of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw secondary to bisphosphonate therapy: a comparison with osteoradionecrosis and osteomyelitis. Journal of Translational Medicine 15:128 (2017).

E.L. George, Y.-L. Lin and M.M. Saunders. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: a mechanobiology prespective. Bone Reports 8, 104-109 (2018).

K. McGowan, T. McGowan and S. Ivanovski. Risk factors for medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws: a systematic review. Oral Diseases 224, 527-536 (2017).

K. McGowan, S. Ivanowski and C. Acton. Osteonecrosis of the jaws: a 14-year restrospective survey of hospital admissions. Australian Dental Journal 0:1-6 (2018). doi: 10.1111/adj.12603

A.M. Parfitt. Osteonal and Hemi-Osteonal Remodeling: The Spatial and Temporal Framework for Signal Traffic in Adult Human Bone. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 55, 273-286 (1994).

B.F. Boyce and L. Xing. Functions of RANKL/RANK/OPG in bone modeling and remodeling. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 473, 139-146 (2008).

D.J. Hadjidakis and I.I. Androulakis. Bone remodeling. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1092, 385-396 (2006).

A.G. Robling , A.B. Castillo and and C.H. Turner. Biomechanical and Molecular Regulation of Bone Remodeling. Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering 8, 455-498 (2006).

L.J. Raggatt and N.C. Partridge. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Bone Remodeling. Journal of Biological Chemistry 285, 25103-25108 (2010).

R.E. Marx. Osteoradionecrosis: a new concept of its pathophysiology. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 41, 283-288 (1983).

J. Bras, H.K. de Jongs and J.P. van Merkesteyn. Osteoradionecrosis of the mandible: pathogenesis. American Journal of Otolaryngology 11, 244-250 (1990).

A.S. Jacobson et al. Paradigm shifts in the management of osteoradionecrosis of the mandible. Oral Oncology 46, 795-801 (2010).

S. Delanian and J.L. Lefaix. The radiation-induced fibroatrophic process: therapeutic perspectives via the antioxidant pathway. Radiotherapy and Oncology 73, 119-11 (2004).

G. Store, E. Eribe and I. Olsen. DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrates multiple bacteria in osteoradionecrosis. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 34, 193-196 (2005).

J.A. Rivero, O. Shamji and A. Kolokythas. Osteoradionecrosis: a review of pathophysiology, prevention and pharmacologic management using pentoxifylline, α-tocopherol, and clodronate. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology 124, 464-471 (2017).

B.L. Langdahl and S.H. Ralston. How Basic Science Discoveries Have Shaped the Treatment of Bone and Mineral Disorders. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 32, 2324-2330 (2017).

J.S. Walsh. Normal bone physiology, remodelling and is hormonal regulation. Surgery 33, 1-6 (2014).

L. De Bruyn et al. Microbial population changes in patients with medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw treated with systemic antibiotics. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 125, 268-275 (2018).

S.L. Ruggiero et al. American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Position Paper on Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw – 2014 update. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 72, 1938-1956 (2014).

R. Baron, S. Ferrari and R.G.G. Russell. Denosumab and bisphosphonates: Different mechanisms of actions and effects. Bone 48, 677-692 (2011).

D.L. Lacey et al. Bench to bedside: elucidation of the OPG-RANK-RANKL pathway and the development of denosumab. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 11, 401-419 (2012).

K. Pimolbutr, S. Porter and S Fedele. Osteonecrosis of the Jaw Associated with Antiangiogenics in Antiresorptive-Naïve Patients: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature. BioMed Research International 8071579 (2018).

F. Hallmer et al. Bacterial diversity in medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology 123, 436-444 (2017).

K. Grisar et al. Osteoradionecrosis and medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: similarities and differences. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 45, 1592-1599 (2016).

Salivary gland problems

Textbooks

R.A. Cawson, M.J. Gleeson and J.W. Eveson. Pathology and surgery of the salivary glands, Isis Medical Media, Oxford, 1997.

E.N. Myers and R.L. Ferris (eds.). Salivary Gland Disorders, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.

E.R. Carlson and R.A. Ord (eds.). Salivary Gland Pathology, Diagnosis and Management, 2nd ed., Wiley Blackwell, 2015.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

G. Bavikatte , P.L. Sit and A. Hassoon. Management of drooling of saliva. British Journal of Medical Practitioners 5(1), a507 (2012).

W.G. Albergotti, S.A. Nguyen, J. Zenk and M.B. Gillespie. Extracapsular dissection for benign parotid tumours: a meta-analysis. Laryngoscope 122, 1954-1960 (2012).

R.R. Cuiman, W. Oels, R. Jaussi and P. Dost. Outcome, general and symptom-specific quality of life after various types of parotid resection. Laryngoscope 122, 1254-1261 (2012).

Trauma, hard and soft tissues

Textbooks

J.P. Wardrope and A.R. Smith. The management of wounds and burns. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1990.

C. Stone. Plastic surgery: facts. Greenwich Medical Media, London, 2001.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

N.A. Drage and V. Sivarajasingam. The use of cone beam computed tomography in the management of isolated orbital floor fractures. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 47, 65-66 (2009).

R.A. Loukota et al. Subclassification of fractures of the condylar process of the mandible. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 43, 72-83 (2005).

M. Perry. Maxillofacial trauma: developments, innovations and controversies. Injury 40, 1252-1259 (2009).

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) clinical guideline 56. Head injury: triage, assessment, investigation and early management of head injury in infants, children and adults. National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care (2007).

Trismus

Textbooks

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

M.L. Kent et al. Radiation-induced trismus in head and neck cancer patients. Supportive care in cancer 16, 305-309 (2008).

A.D. Rapidis, P.U. Dijkstra, J.L.N. Roodenburg, J.P. Rodrigo, A. Rinaldo, P. Strojan, R.P. Takes and A. Ferlito. Trismus in patients with head and neck cancer: ethiopathogenesis, diagnosis and management. Clinical Otolaryngology 40, 516-526 (2015).

M.J. Garnett, F.S. Nohl and S.C. Barclay. Management of patients with reduced oral aperture and mandibular hypomobility (trismus) and implications for operative dentistry. British Dental Journal 204, 125-131 (2008).

P.U. Dijkstra, W.W. Kalk and J.L. Rodenburg. Trismus in head and neck oncology: a systematic review. Oral Oncology 40, 879-889 (2004).

Tumour (metastases, haematological, other)

Textbooks

W.G. Jiang and R.E. Mansel (eds.). Cancer Metastasis, Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms and Clinical Intervention, Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York, 2004.

J. Myers (ed.). Oral Cancer Metastasis. Springer, New York, 2010.

J.A. Werner and R.K. Davis (eds.). Metastases in Head and Neck Cancer. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2004.

R.W. Ruddon. Cancer Biology, 4th ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York, 2007.

R.A. Weinberg. The Biology of Cancer, 2nd ed., Taylor and Francis, New York, London, 2014.

J.P. Harris and M.H. Weisman (eds.). Head and Neck Manifestations of Systemic Disease. Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, 2007.

E.S. Jaffe, N.L. Harris, H. Stein and J.W. Vardiman (eds.). World Health Organization of Tumours. Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. IARC Press, Lyon, 2001.

D.A. Sallman et al. (eds.). Handbook of Hematologic Malignancies. Springer Publishing Company, demosMEDICAL, New York, 2017.

S. Bailey and R. Skinner (eds.). Paediatric Haematology and Oncology. Oxford University Press Inc., New York, 2010.

R.A.J. Spence, R. Hay and P. Johnston (eds.). Infection in the cancer patient – a practical guide. Oxford University Press Inc., New York 2006.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

G. diSibio and S.W. French. Metastatic Patterns of Cancer. Results from a Large Autopsy Study. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 132, 931- 939 (2008).

B.C. Jham et al. Metastatic Tumours to the Oral Cavity: A Clinical Study of 18 Cases. Head and Neck Pathology 5, 355-358 (2011).

N.J. D’Silva et al. Metastatic tumours in the jaws: a retrospective study of 114 cases. Journal of the American Dental Association 137, 1667-1672 (2006).

S.Turajlic and C. Swanton. Metastasis as an evolutionary process. Science 352, 169-174 (2016).

E.B. Rankin and A.J. Giaccia. Hypoxic control of metastasis. Science 352, 175-180 (2016).

A.C. Chiang and J. Massagué. Molecular Basis of Metastasis. New England Journal of Medicine 359, 2814-2823 (2008).

W. Garavello, A. Ciardo, R. Spreafico and R.M. Gaini. Risk Factors for Distant Metastases in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Archives of Otolaryngology--Head & Neck Surgery 132, 762-766 (2006).

A. Hirshberg, P. Leibovich and A. Buchner. Metastatic tumors of the jawbones – Analysis of 390 cases. Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine 23, 337-341 (1994).

A. Hirshberg, P. Leibovich and A. Buchner. Metastatic tumors to the oral mucosa – Analysis of 157 cases. Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine 22, 385-390 (1993).

A.Hirshberg, A. Shnaiderman-Shapiro, I. Kaplan et al. Metastatic tumors to the oral cavity – Pathogenesis and analysis of 673 cases. Oral Oncology 44, 743-752 (2008).

L. Dercle et al. Diagnostic and prognostic value of 18F-FDG PET, CT and MRI in perineural spread of head and neck malignancies. European Radiology 28, 1761-1779 (2018).

T.B. Ableman and S.A. Newman. Perineural Spread of Head and Neck Cancer: Ophthalmic Considerations. Journal of Neurological Surgery – Part B 77, 131-139 (2016).

V. de Sanctis et al. Mucositis in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and systemic therapies: Literature review and consensus statements. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 100, 147-168 (2016).

K. Sagheb et al. Supraclavicular Metastases from Distant Primary Solid Tumours: A Retrospective Study of 41 Years. Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery 16, 152-157 (2017).

J.P. Shah. Patterns of cervical lymph node metastasis from squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract. American Journal of Surgery 160, 405-409 (1990).

R.P. Takes et al. Distant metastases from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, Part I. Basic aspects. Oral Oncology 48, 775-779 (2012).

R. de Bree et al. Distant metastases from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, Part II. Diagnosis. Oral Oncology 48, 780-786 (2012).

M. Haigentz Jr. et al. Distant metastases from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, Part II. Treatment. Oral Oncology 48, 787-793 (2012).

R.C. Cardoso et al. The multiple oral presentations of multiple myeloma. Support Care Cancer 22, 259-267 (2014).

T.D.B. Silva et al. Oral manifestantions of lymphoma: a systematic review. Journal of Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology and Endodonthology ecancer 10, 665-680 (2016). DOI:10.3332/ecancer.2016.665

C. Galy-Bernadoy and R. Garrel. Head and neck soft-tissue sarcoma in adults. European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck diseases 133, 37–42 (2016).

L.-V. Vassiliou et al. Head and neck sarcomas: A single institute series. Oral Oncology 65, 16-22 (2017).

R.W.F. Breakey et al. The surgical management of head and neck sarcoma: The Newcastle experience. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery 70, 78-84 (2017).

D. Gerry et al. Liposarcoma of the head and neck: analysis of 318 cases with comparison to non-head and neck sites. Head & Neck 36, 393-400 (2014).  

W.Y. Zu et al. Clinical Characteristics of Radiation-Induced Sarcoma of the Head and Neck: Review of 15 Cases and 323 Cases in the Literature. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 74, 283-291 (2016).

B. Tudor-Green, R. Gomez and P.A. Brennan. Current update on the diagnosis and management of head and neck soft tissue sarcomas. Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine 46, 674-679 (2017).

M. Zacher et al. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the skin: a comprehensive review on diagnosis and treatment. Medical Oncology 35, 135 (2018).

I. Haberal et al. A rare diagnosis in the head and neck region: leiomyosarcoma. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 21, 823-825 (2010).

M. Plummer et al. Global burden of cancers attributable to infections in 2012: a synthetic analysis. The Lancet Global Health 4, e609–e616 (2016).

S.M. Gondivkar et al. Involvement of viral factors with head and neck cancers. Oral Oncology 48, 195-199 (2012).

A. Arshi, B.A. Tajudeen and M.St. John. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the head and neck: Demographics, clinicopathologic features, management, and treatment outcomes. Oral Oncology 51, 1088-1094 (2015).

A. Kanatas et al. Schwannomas of the head and neck. Oncology Reviews 3, 107-111 (2012).

R. Patlola et al. Carotid body tumour. International Journal of Cardiology 143, e7-e10 (2010).

Vascular abnormalities

Textbooks

S. Szabo and P.E. North (eds.). Histopathology and pathogenesis of vascular tumors and malformations. Springer, New York, 2016.

R. Mattassi, D.A. Loose and M. Vaghi (eds.). Hemangioma and Vascular Malformations. An Atlas of Diagnosis and Treatments, 2nd ed., Springer Milano Heidelberg, 2015.

Y.-W. Kim, B.-B. Lee, W.F. Yakes and Y.-S. Do. Congenital Vascular Malformations: A Comprehensive Review of Current Management, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2017.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

S.C. Nair. Vascular Anomalies of the Head and Neck Region. Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery 17, 1-12 (2018).

K. Mahady et al. Vascular anomalies of the head and neck in children. Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery 5, 886-897 (2015).

M. Sadick et al. Interdisciplinary Management of Head and Neck Vascular Anomalies: Clinical Presentation, Diagnostic Findings and Minimalinvasive Therapy. European Journal of Radiology Open 4, 63-68 (2017).

L.M. Buckmiller, G.T. Richter and J.Y. Sun. Diagnosis and management of hemangioma and vascular malformations of the head and neck. Oral Diseases 16, 405-418 (2010).

C. Léauté-Labrèze, J.I. Harper and P.H. Hoeger. Infantile haemangioma. Lancet 390, 85-94 (2017).

P. Carmeliet. Mechanisms of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. Nature Medicine 6, 389-395 (2000).

N. Draoui, P. de Zeeuw and P. Carmeliet. Angiogenesis revisited from a metabolic perspective: role and therapeutic implications of endothelial cell metabolism. Open Biology 7: 170219 (2017).

l.M. Boon, F. Ballieux and M. Vikkula. Pathogenesis of Vascular Anomalies. Clinical and Plastic Surgery 38, 7-19 (2011).

Xerostomia (dry mouth)

Textbooks

G. Carpenter (ed.). Dry Mouth – A Clinical Guide on Causes, Effects and Treatments. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

C. Scully and D.H. Felix. Oral Medicine - Update for the dental practitioner. Dry mouth and disorders of salivation. British Dental Journal 199, 423-427 (2005).

S. Osailan et al. Investigating the relationship between hyposalivation and mucosal wetness. Oral Diseases 17, 109-114 (2011).

R.I. Fox. Sjögren’s syndrome. Lancet 366, 321-331 (2005).

L. Tong, V. Koh and B.Y.-H. Thong. Review of autoantigens in Sjögren’s syndrome: an update. Journal of Inflammation Research 10, 97-105 (2017).

K. Matsui and H. Sano. T Helper 17 Cells in Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome. Journal of Clinical Medicine 6, 65 (2017).

I. Thorne and N. Sutcliffe. Sjögren’s syndrome. British Journal of Hospital Medicine 78, 438-442 (2017).

A. Wolff et al. A Guide to Medications Inducing Salivary Gland Dysfunction, Xerostomia, and Subjective Sialorrhea; A Systematic Review Sponsored by the World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI. Drugs 17, 1-28 (2017).

A.A. Owosho et al. The role of parotid gland irradiation in the development of severe hyposalivation (xerostomia) after intensity-modulated radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: Temporal patterns, risk factors, and testing the QUANTEC guidelines. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 45, 595-600 (2017).

S.A. Bhide. A.B. Miah, K.J. Harrington, K.L. Newbold and C.M. Nutting. Radiation-induced Xerostomia: Pathophysiology, Prevention and Treatment. Clinical Oncology 21, 737-744 (2009).

R. Pinna, G. Campus, E. Cumbo, I. Mura and E. Milia. Xerostomia induced by radiotherapy: an overview of the physiopathology, clinical evidence, and management of the oral damage. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 11, 171-188 (2015).

S.B. Jensen et al. A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies: prevalence, severity and impact on quality of life. Support Care Cancer 18, 1039-1060 (2010).

S.B. Jensen et al. A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies: management strategies and economic impact. Support Care Cancer 18, 1061-1079 (2010).

P. Dirix, S.Nuyts and W. van den Bogaert. Radiation-Induced Xerostomia in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer. Cancer 107, 2525-2534 (2006).

S. Brockbank et al. Pretreatment Information on Dysphagia: Exploring the Views of Head and Neck Cancer Patients. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 49, 89-97 (2015).

M.S. Chambers et al. Xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer: Pathogenesis, impact on quality of life, and management. Head & Neck 26, 796-807 (2004).

K.A. Hutcheson et al. Late Dysphagia after Radiotherapy-Based Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer. Cancer 118, 5793-5799 (2012).


Extracts and modified extracts of D.A. Mitchell and A.N. Kanatas; An Introduction to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2nd Ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, © by D.A. Mitchell, 2015, have been reproduced in some subsections of A-Z of diagnoses with permission of the author.