B.K.B. Berkowitz and B.J. Moxham. Head and Neck Anatomy – a clinical reference. Martin Dunitz, 2002.

B.M. Logan. P.A. Reynolds and R.T. Hutchings. McMinn’s Colour Atlas of Head and Neck Anatomy (4th ed.). Mosby Elsevier, 2010.

M.E. Atkinson. Anatomy for Dental Students (4th ed.). Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2013.

H. Ellis and V. Mahadevan. Clinical Anatomy for Students and Junior Doctors (14th ed.). Wiley Blackwell, 2018.

H. Gray and H.V. Carter (illustrations). Gray’s Anatomy (41st ed.). Elsevier. 2015.

L. Klenerman. Human Anatomy: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, 2015.

H. Ellis, B.M. Logan, A.K. Dixon and D.J. Bowden. Human Sectional Anatomy – Atlas of Body Sections, CT and MRI Images (4th ed.). CRC Press, 2015.

K. Sweeney. An Illustrated Adventure in Human Anatomy (2nd ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002.

B.M. Logan. Logan’s Illustrated Human Anatomy. CRC Press, 2016.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

F. Gröning, M. Fagan and P. O’Higgins. Modeling the Human Mandible Under Masticatory Loads: Which Input Variables are Important? The Anatomical Record 295, 853-863 (2012).

F. Gröning, J. Liu, M. Fagan and P. O’Higgins. Why Do Humans Have Chins? Testing the Mechanical Significance of Modern Human Symphyseal Morphology with Finite Element Analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 144, 593-606 (2011).

Electronic resources

The following are commercial resources but all offer free access, or at least a free (short) trial period for the materials.

A series of 51 video lectures by Vishy Mahadevan (‘the funky professor’) with free 10-day trial access, published by The Royal College of Surgeons of England;

Acland’s Video Atlas of Human Anatomy, a collection of detailed video material, covering all body regions based on dissections, with free 48-hour trial access, published by

A large collection of 3D / 4D sophisticated simulated material, the electronic version of anatomical models, with free 3-day trial access, published by

A good general source of accessible information about head and neck anatomy, alongside radiology investigations of the head and neck region can be found at