Maxfacts is currently a work-in-progress, many areas of the site are incomplete.




A. Rockall, A. Hatrick, P. Armstrong and M. Wastie. Diagnostic Imaging. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, 2013.

R.N. Bryan (ed.). Introduction to the Science of Medical Imaging. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010.

J.T. Bushberg, J.A. Seibert, E.M. Leidholdt Jr. and J.M. Boone. The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging. 3rd Edition. Lippincott Williams and Williams, Philadephia, 2012.

N. Barrie-Smith and A. Webb. Introduction to Medical Imaging: Physics, Engineering and Clinical Applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2011.

T.R. Lanheim and P.-L. Westesson. Maxillofacial Imaging. Springer, Heidelberg, Berlin, 2008.

B.L. Koch, B.E. Hamilton. P.A. Hudgins and R. Harmsberger. Diagnostic Imaging: Head and Neck. Elsevier, Salt Lake City, 2016.

A. Anbarasu and J.I. Lane (eds.) Head & Neck Imaging. Oxford Specialist Handbooks in Radiology. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2018.

C.H. Kau and S. Richmond (eds.). Three-Dimensional Imaging for Orthodontics and Maxillofacial Surgery. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, 2010.

B. Koong (ed.). Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, 2017.

F.S. Barnes and B. Greenebaum. Biological and Medical Aspects of Electromagnetic fields. Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, 3rd edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2018.

B.L. Koch, B.E. Hamilton, P.A. Hudgins and R. Harnsberger (eds.) Diagnostic Imaging: Head and Neck. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2016.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

R. Boeddinghaus and A. Whyte. Current concepts in maxillofacial imaging. European Journal of Radiology 66, 396-418 (2008).

R. Boeddinghaus and A. Whyte. Trends in maxillofacial imaging. Clinical Radiology 73, 4-18 (2018).

H. Lewis-Jones, S. Colley and D. Gibson. Imaging in head and neck cancer: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines. The Journal of Laryngology & Otology 130, S28-S31 (2016).

Electronic resources

Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI


M.H. Levitt. Spin Dynamics (2nd ed.). Wiley, Chichester, 2009.

B. Blümich. NMR Imaging of Materials. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 2000.

P.T. Callaghan: Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy. Oxford University Press, 2003.

S.C. Bushong and G. Clarke. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Physical and Biological Principles (4th ed.). Elsevier, St Louis, 2015.

M.A. Brown and R.C. Semelka. MRI Basic Principles and Applications. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, 2010.

H. Johansen-Berg and T.E.J. Behrens (eds.). Diffusion MRI: From quantitative measurement to in-vivo neuroanatomy. Elsevier, London, 2009.

J.F. Debatin and G.C. McKinnon (eds.). Ultrafast MRI Techniques and Applications. Springer, Berlin, 1998.

V.C. Pierre and M.J. Allen (eds.). Contrast Agents for MRI Experimental Methods. Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 2018.

R. Ansorge and M. Graves. The Physics and Mathematics of MRI. IOP Concise Physics, Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2016.

L.A. Loevner (ed.). Head and Neck MRI. An Issue of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics; Volume 20, Issue 3 of The Clinics: Radiology. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2012.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

R.P. Nooij et al. Functional MRI for Treatment Evaluation in Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Review of the Literature form a Radiologist Perspective. Current Radiology Reports 6:2 (2018).

Y.L. Dai and A.D. King. State of the art MRI in head and neck cancer. Clinical Radiology 73, 45-59 (2018).

A. Attyé et al. Diffusion MRI: literature review in salivary gland tumours. Oral Diseases 23, 572-575 (2017).

T.J. Fraum et al. Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents: A Comprehensive Risk Assessment. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 46, 338-353 (2017).

J.A. Rees et al. Evaluating the potential of chelation therapy to prevent and treat gadolinium deposition from MRI contrast agents. Nature 8: 4419 (2018).



J.C.E. Underwood. Introduction of Biopsy Interpretation and Surgical Pathology. Springer Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 1981.

P. Dey (ed.). Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology. Interpretation and Diagnostic Difficulties. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, 2012.

H.A. Domanski (ed.). Atlas of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology. Springer, London, Heidelberg, 2014.

G. Kocjan (ed.). Clinical Cytopathology of the Head and Neck. A Text and Atlas. Greeenwich Medical Media, London, 2001.

G. Kocjan. Cythopathology of the Head and Neck: Ultrasound Guided FNAC, 2nd edition. John Wiley & Sons, London, 2017.

D.R. Gnepp. Diagnostic Surgical Pathology of the Head and Neck (2nd ed.). Saunders Elsevier, 2013.

B.W. Neville, D.D. Dann, C.M. Allen and A.C. Chi (eds.). Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology (4th ed.). Elsevier, St. Louis, 2016.

J.A. Kiernan. Histological and Histochemical Methods (4th ed.). Scion, Banbury, 2008.

M. Peckham. Histology at a Glance (1st ed.). Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, 2001.

A.E. Woods and R.C. Ellis. Laboratory histopathology (1st ed.). Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1994.

H.S. Lumerman and R.B. Bowe. Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial Histopathology. Wolters Kluwer, Philadelphia, 2012.

X-ray and CT scans


J. Hsieh. Computed Tomography: Principles, Design, Artifacts and Recent Advances. SPIE Press, Washington, 2003.

A.G. Farman (ed.). Panoramic Radiology: Seminars on Maxillofacial Imaging and Interpretation. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 2007.

C.A. MacDonald. An Introduction to X-Ray Physics, Optics and Applications. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2017.

H.E. Martz et al. X-ray Imaging: Fundamentals, Industrial Techniques and Applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2016.

D. MacDonald. Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology: A Diagnostic Approach. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, 2011.

W.C. Scarfe and C. Angelopoulos (eds.). Maxillofacial Cone Beam Computed Tomography: Principles, Techniques and Clinical Applications. Springer, Heidelberg, 2018..

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

S. Gavala et al. Radiation dose reduction in direct digital panoramic radiography. European Journal of Radiology 71, 42-48 (2009).

M. Uffmanna and C. Schaefer-Prokopb. Digital radiology: The balance between image quality and required radiation dose. European Journal of Radiology 72, 202-208 (2009).

C. Wolff, T. Mücke, S. Wagenpfeil, A. Kanatas, O. Bissinger and O. Deppe. Do CBCT scans alter surgical treatment planning? Comparison of preoperative surgical diagnosis using panoramic versus cone-beam CT images. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 44, 1700-1705 (2016). Vos, J. Casselman and G.R.J. Swennen. Cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) imaging of the oral and maxillofacial region: A systematic review of the literature. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 38, 609-625 (2009).

A. Suomalainen, E.E. Pakbaznejad and S. Robinson. Dentomaxillofacial imaging with panoramic views and cone beam CT. Insights into Imaging 6, 1-16 (2015).

T. Kiljunen et al. Dental cone beam CT: A review. Physica Medica – European Journal of Medical Physics 31, 844-860 (2015).

Electronic resources

PET scans


H. Bender, H. Palmedo, H.-J. Biersack and P.E. Valk. Atlas of Clinical PET in Oncology versus CT and MRI. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.

M. Yao and P.F. Faulhaber (eds.). PET Imaging of the Head and Neck, an Issue of PET Clinics, volume 7. Elsevier Health Sciences, Amsterdam, 2012.

R.L. Wahl and H.N. Wagner (eds.). Principles and Practice of PET and PET/CT. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2009.

P.S. Conti and D.K. Cham (eds.). PET-CT: A Case Based Approach. Springer Science & Business Media, 2005.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

J. Caciceo et al. Should PET/CT be implemented in the routine imaging work-up of locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma? A prospective analysis. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 42, 1378-1389 (2015).



A. Ahuja and R. Evans (eds.). Practical Head and Neck Ultrasound. Greenwich Medical Media Ltd., London, 2000.

A.T. Ahuja. Diagnostic Ultrasound: Head and Neck. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2014.

G. Schmidt. Ultrasound. Thieme Medical Publishers, Stuttgart, 2006.

N.M. Tole. Basic physics of ultrasonic imaging. World Health Organisation, Geneva, 2005.

J. Escoffre and A. Bouakz (eds.). Therapeutic ultrasound: From biophysics concepts to clinical applications. Springer International Publishing, 2016.

R.C. Otto and J. Wellauer. Ultrasound Guided Biopsy and Drainage. Springer Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2012.

H.J. Welkoborsky and P. Jecker (eds.). Ultrasonography of the Head and Neck. An Imaging Atlas. Springer Nature, Switzerland, 2019.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

N. Doan et al. In vitro effects of therapeutic ultrasound on cell proliferation, protein synthesis, and cytokine production by human fibroblasts, osteoblasts and monocytes. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 57, 409-419 (1999).

G. Eggers et al. Piezosurgery ®: An ultrasound device for cutting bone and its use and limitations in maxillofacial surgery. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 42, 451-453 (2004).

E.A. Tawfik, F.O. Walker and M.S. Cartwright. Neuromuscular Ultrasound of Cranial Nerves. Journal of Clinical Neurology 11, 109-121 (2015).

M. Schapher et al. Transoral ultrasound: a helpful and easy diagnostic method in obstructive salivary gland diseases. European Radiology 29, 3635-3637 (2019).

N. Nishio et al. Diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastases in head and neck cancer with ultrasonic measurement of lymph node volume. Auris Nasus Larynx, in press (2019).

N. Smiley et al. Is Ultrasound a Useful Adjunct in the Management of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma? Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 77, 204-217 (2019).

Y.-C. Yeh et al. The effectiveness of high-resolution ultrasound in the assessment of the carotid intima – media thickness for postirradiated neck. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 276, 1167-1173 (2019).

Blood and urine tests


S. Ramasamyiyer. Handbook of Clinical Biochemistry, 2nd edition. World Scientific, Singapore, 2011.

C.A. Buris and D.E. Bruns (eds.). Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, 7th edition. Elsevier Health Sciences, St. Louis, 2014.

A. Dasgupta and A. Wahed (eds.). Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Control. Elsevier, San Diego, 2014.

D. White. N. Lawson, P. Masters and D. McLaughlin. Clinical Chemistry. Garland Science, New York and London, 2016.

Medical history and examination


M. Longmore, I. Wilkinson, A. Baldwin and E. Wallin. Oxford handbook of clinical medicine (9th ed.). Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2014.

N.J. Talley and S. O’Connor. Clinical Examination: A Systematic Guide to Physical Diagnosis (6th ed.). Elsevier Australia, 2010.

J. Thomas and T. Monaghan (eds.). Oxford handbook of clinical examination and practical skills. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007.

P. Kumar and M.L. Clark; A. Feather (ed.). Kumar and Clark’s Clinical Medicine (9th edition; e-book). Elsevier Health Sciences, 2016.

A Baldwin, N. Hjelde, C. Goumalatsou and G. Myers. Oxford handbook of clinical specialties. Oxford University Press, 2016.