Maxfacts

Maxfacts is currently a work-in-progress, many areas of the site are incomplete.

Surgery

General

Textbooks

J.C. Watkinson and P.W. Gilbert (eds.). Stell & Maran’s Textbook of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, 5th ed., CRC Press, Philadelphia, 2012.

D.A. Mitchell and A.N. Kanatas. An Introduction to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2015.

P. Brennan et al. (eds.). Maxillofacial Surgery, 3rd ed., Churchill Livingstone, London, 2016.

D.Kademani and P. Tiwana (eds.). Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Elsevier Saunders, St. Louis, 2016.

Electronic resources

The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons; www.baoms.org.uk

Royal College of Surgeons; https://www.rcseng.ac.uk

British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; www.bjoms.com

The American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons; www.aaoms.org

The British Association of Head and Neck Oncologists; www.bahno.org.uk

The British Orthodontic Society; www.bos.org.uk

The European Association of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery; www.eurofaces.com

The International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons; www.iaoms.org

Anaesthesia

Textbooks

I. Shaw, C. Kumar and C. Dodds (eds.). Oxford Textbook of Anaesthesia for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York, 2010.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

Electronic resources

Difficult Airway Society Guidelines: https://www.das.uk.com/

Benign lumps

Textbooks

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

C. Brewis, J.P. Pracy and D.M. Albert. Treatment of lymphangiomas of the head and neck in children by intralesional injection of OK-432 (Picibanil). Clinical Otolaryngology and Allied Sciences 25, 130-134 (2000).

K.A.O.M. Chapelle et al. Rational approach to diagnosis and treatment of ameloblastomas and odontogenic keratocysts. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 42, 381-390 (2004).

Electronic resources

Bone lesions (benign and malignant)

Textbooks

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

A. Tan and S.H. Ralston. Paget’s disease of bone. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 107, 865-869 (2014).

R.K. Lalam et al. Paget Disease of Bone. Seminars in muscoskeletal radiology 20, 287-299 (2016).

J.S. Lee et al. Clinical guidelines for the management of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia. Journal of Rare Diseases 7 (suppl), 1-19 (2012).

A. Marí et al. Diffuse sclerosing ostreomyelitis (DSO) of the mandible in SAPHO syndrome: A novel approach with anti-TNF therapy. Systematic review. Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 42, 1990-1996 (2014).

G.J. Ridder et al. Central skull base osteomyelitis: new insights and implications for diagnosis and treatment. European Archives of Otorhinolaryngology 272, 1269-1276 (2015).

M. Kreppel and J. Zöller. Ameloblastoma – Clinical, radiological and therapeutic findings. Oral Diseases 24, 63-66 (2018).

S. Otto et al. Denusomab as a potential treatment alternative for patients suffering from diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis of the mandible. Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 46, 534-537 (2018).

Cancer – facial skin, mouth and salivary glands

Textbooks

M. Hayes. Practical Skin Cancer Surgery. Elsevier Australia, 2014.

B. Gastman (ed.). Cutaneous Malignancies: A Surgical Perspective. Thieme, New York, Stuttgart, 2018.

J.C. Watkinson, M.N. Gaze and J.A. Wilson. Head and neck surgery, 4th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 2000.

R. Fernandes. Local and Regional Flaps in Head & Neck Reconstruction. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford, 2014.

Electronic resources

The National Cancer Institute (United States) www.cancer.gov

In the UK: www.ncri.org.uk

British Association of Dermatology (BAD) www.bad.org.uk

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

K.D. Olsen and J.E. Lewis. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma: a clinicopathological review. Head and Neck 23, 705-712 (2001).

D.N. Sutton et al. The prognostic implications of the surgical margin in oral squamous cell carcinoma. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 32, 30-34 (2003).

A. Ferlito et al. Changing concepts in the surgical management of the cervical node metastasis. Oral Oncology 39, 429-435 (2003).

R. Lindberg. Distribution of cervical lymph node metastases from squamous cell carcinoma of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts. Cancer 29, 1446-1449 (1972).

C.J. Kerawala and M. Heliotos. Prevention of complications in neck dissection. Head and Neck Oncology 1: 35 (2009).

M.N. Elsheikh et al. Elective supraomohyoid neck dissection for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: is dissection of sublevel IIB necessary? Oral Oncology 44, 216-219 (2008).

P.A. Brennan et al. The contemporary management of chyle-leak following cervical thoracic duct damage. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 50, 197-201 (2012).

A. Rinaldo, A.R. Shaha, P.K. Pellitteri, P.J. Bradley and A. Ferlito. Management of malignant sublingual salivary gland tumours. Oral Oncology 40, 2-5 (2004).

R.B. Bell et al. Management and outcome of patients with malignant salivary gland tumors. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 63, 917-928 (2005).

T.K. Ong, C. Murphy, A.B. Smith, A.N. Kanatas and D.A. Mitchell. Survival after surgery for oral cancer: a 30-year experience. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 55, 911-916 (2017).

A. Kolk, K.-D. Wolff, R. Smeets et al. Melanotic and non-melanotic malignancies of the face and external ear – A review of current treatment concepts and future options. Cancer Treatment Reviews 40, 819-837 (2014).

F. López et al. Update on primary head and neck mucosal melanoma. Head & Neck 38, 147-155 (2016).

F. Bath-Hextall et al. Interventions for basal cell carcinoma of the skin: systematic review. British Medical Journal 329, 705-708 (2004).

B. Gurney and C. Newlands. Management of regional metastatic disease in head and neck cutaneous malignancy. 1. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 52, 301-307 (2014).

C. Newlands and B. Gurney. Management of regional metastatic disease in head and neck cutaneous malignancy. 2. Cutaneous malignant melanoma. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 52, 294-300 (2014).

B.G. Main et al. The metastatic potential of head and neck cutaneous malignant melanoma: is sentinel node biopsy useful? British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 52, 340-343 (2014).

R.J. Marsden et al. Revised U.K. guidelines for the management of cutaneous melanoma. British Journal of Dermatology 163, 238-256 (2010).

N.R. Telfer, G.B. Colver and C.A. Morton. Guidelines for the management of basal cell carcinoma. British Journal of Dermatology 159, 35-48 (2008).

C.S. Wong, R.C. Strange and J.T. Lear. Basal cell carcinoma. British Medical Journal 327, 794-798 (2003).

C. Berking et al. Basal Cell Carcinoma –Treatments for the Commonest Skin Cancer. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International 111, 389-395 (2014).

M.V. Heppt et al. Prognostic factors and treatment outcomes in 444 patients with mucosal melanoma. European Journal of Cancer 81, 36-44 (2017).

D. Schadendorf et al. Melanoma. The Lancet 392, 971-984 (2018).

A.K. D’Cruz et al. Elective versus Therapeutic Neck Dissection in Node-Negative Oral Cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine 373, 521-529 (2015).

Cleft lip / palate and craniofacial syndrome

Textbooks

T.T. Turvey, K.W.L. Vig and R.J. Fonseca (eds.). Facial Clefts and Craniosynostosis: Principles and Management. Saunders, 1996.

R.D. Bennun, J.F. Harfin, G.K.B. Sándor and D. Genecov (eds.). Cleft Lip and Palate Management. A Comprehensive Atlas. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, 2016.

S. Berkowitz (ed.). Cleft Lip and Palate: Diagnosis and Management. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

J.V. Pattisapu et al. Craniosynosthosis: diagnosis and surgical management. Atlas of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America 18, 77-91 (2010).

C.M. Rivera-Serrano et al. Pedicled facial buccinator (FAB) flap: a new flap for reconstruction of skull defects. Laryngoscope 120, 1922-1930 (2010).

A.C. van Lierop and J.J. Fagan. Buccinator myomucosal flap: clinical results and review of anatomy, surgical technique and applications. The Journal of Laryngology and Otology 122, 181-187 (2008).

B. Bianchi et al. Myomucosal cheek flaps: applications in intraoral reconstruction using three different techniques. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology Endodontics 108, 353-359 (2009).

T. De Jong et al. Long-term functional outcome in 167 patients with syndromic craniosynostosis; defining a syndrome-specific risk profile. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery 63, 1635-1641 (2010).

Electronic resources

Cleft Lip & Palate Association; www.clapa.com

Cysts

Textbooks

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

K.A.O.M. Chapelle et al. Rational approach to diagnosis and treatment of ameloblastomas and odontogenic keratocysts. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 42, 381-390 (2004).

P.J. Stoelinga. The treatment of odontogenic keratocysts by excision of the overlying attached mucosa, enucleation, and treatment of the bony defect with Carnoy solution. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 63, 1662-1666 (2005).

P.J. Stoelinga. The management of aggressive cysts of the jaws. Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery 11, 2-12 (2012).

Dysphagia

Textbooks

J.A. Cichero and B.E. Murdoch (eds.). Dysphagia: Foundation, Theory and Practice. John Wiley, Chichester, 2006.

K.W. Altman (ed.). Dysphagia: Diagnosis and Management. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America; Vol. 46, No. 6. Elsevier, Philadelphia, 2013.

R.Shaker, P.G. Belafsky, G.N. Postma and C. Easterling (eds.). Principles of Deglutition. A Multidisciplinary Text for Swallowing and its Disorders. Springer, New York Heidelberg, 2013.

R. Leonard and K. Kendall (eds.). Dysphagia. Assessment and Treatment Planning. Plural Publishing, San Diego, 2019.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

S.A. Kraaijenga et al. Current assessment and treatment strategies of dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients: a systematic review of the 2012/13 literature. Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care 8, 152-163 (2014).

S.B. Batth, J.C.Caudell and A.M. Chen. Practical considerations in reducing swallowing dysfunction following concurrent chemoradiotherapy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Head & Neck 36, 291-298 (2014).

C.M. Steele et al. The Influence of Food Texture and Liquid Consistency Modification on Swallowing Physiology and Function: A Systematic Review. Dysphagia 30, 2-26 (2015).

A.M. Beck et al. Systematic review and evidence based recommendations on texture modified food and thickened liquids for adults (above 17 years) with oropharyngeal dysphagia – An updated clinical guideline. Clinical Nutrition, in press (2017).

L.M. Burkhead, C.M. Sapienza and J.C. Rosenbek. Strength-Training Exercise in Dysphagia Rehabilitation: Principles, Procedures, and Directions for Future Research. Dysphagia 22, 251-256 (2007).

S. Langmore et al. Does PEG Use Cause Dysphagia in Head and Neck Cancer Patients? Dysphagia 27, 251-259 (2012).

B.P. Messing et al. Prophylactic Swallow Therapy for Patients with Head and Neck Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiotherapy: A Randomized Trial. Dysphagia 32, 487-500 (2017).

R. Govender et al. Patient Experiences of Swallowing Exercises After Head and Neck Cancer: A Qualitative Study Examining Barriers and Facilitators Using Behaviour Change Theory. Dysphagia 32, 559-569 (2017).

B.R. Pauloski. Rehabilitation of Dysphagia Following Head and Neck Cancer. Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Clinics of North America 19, 889-928 (2008).

Dysplasia / oral mucosal lesions

Textbooks

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

B.T. Yuhan et al. Benign and Malignant Oral Lesions in Children and Adolescents. An Organized Approach to Diagnosis and Management. Pediatric Clinics of North America 65, 1033-1050 (2018).

M.M. Cawley and L.M. Benson. Current trends in managing oral mucositis. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing 9, 584-592 (2005).

V. de Sanctis et al. Mucositis in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and systemic therapies: Literature review and consensus statements. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 100, 147-168 (2016).

B. Oronsky et al. A review of Clinical Radioprotection and Chemoprotection for Oral Mucositis. Translational Oncology 11, 771-778 (2018).

F. Marín-Conde et al. Photobiomodulation with low-level laser therapy reduces oral mucositis caused by head and neck radio-chemotherapy: prospective randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, in press (2018).

R.W. McCullough. Practice insights on patient care – management overview for chemoradiation toxic mucositis – guidelines, guideline-supported therapies and high potency polymerized cross-linked sucralfate. Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice 25, 409-422 (2019).

C. Scully. Challenges in predicting which oral mucosal potentially malignant disease will progress to neoplasia. Oral Diseases 20, 1-5 (2014).

P.J. Thomson et al. Interventional laser surgery for oral potentially malignant disorders: a longitudinal patient cohort study. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 46, 337-342 (2017).

L. Chau et al. Topical agents for oral cancer chemoprevention: A systematic review. Oral Oncology 67, 153-159 (2017).

A. Villa and S. Sonis. Oral leukoplakia remains a challenging condition. Oral Diseases 24, 179-183 (2018).

M. Awadallah et al. Management update of potentially premalignant oral epithelial lesions. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology and Radiology 125, 628-638 (2018).

M.A. Olson et al. Oral lichen planus. Clinics in Dermatology 34, 495-504 (2016).

M. Carrozzo et al. Oral lichen planus: A disease or a spectrum of tissue reactions? Types, causes, diagnostic algorithms, prognosis, management strategies. Periodontology 2000 80, 105-125 (2019).

M.A. Gonzalez-Moles et al. Outcomes of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions treated with topical corticosteroids. Oral Diseases 24, 573-579 (2018).

S. Leuci et al. Oral autoimmune vesicobullous diseases: Classification, clinical presentations, molecular mechanisms, diagnostic algorithms, and management. Periodontology 2000 9, 77-88 (2019).

Ectopic teeth

Textbooks

M. Tsukiboshi. Autotransplantation of teeth. Quintessence, Chicago, 2001.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

T.P. Bezerra et al. Prophylaxis versus placebo treatment for infective and inflammatory complications of surgical third molar removal: a split-mouth, double-blind, controlled, clinical trial with amoxicillin. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 69, e333-339 (2011).

F. Bruguglio et al. Complications in surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars in relation to flap design: clinical and statistical evaluations. Quintessence International, 42, 445-453 (2011).

R.W. Carvalho and B.C. do Egito Vasconcelos. Assessment of factors associated with surgical difficulty during removal of impacted lower third molars. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 69, 2714-2721 (2011).

Facial appearance and jaw disproportion

Textbooks

J.B. Nadol and M.L. McKenna (eds.). Surgery of the ear and temporal bone. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2015.

B.N. Epker, J.P. Stella and L.C. Fish. Dentofacial deformities, 2nd ed., Mosby, St. Louis, 1995.

L. Mitchell. An introduction to orthodontics, 4th ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2013.

P. Ward Booth, S.A. Schendel and J.-E. Hausamen (eds.). Maxillofacial surgery, Volume 2. Churchill-Livingstone, Edinburgh, 2007.

J.C. Posnick. Principles and Practice of Orthognathic Surgery, Elsevier Saunders, St. Louis, 2014.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

S. Eremia and M.A. Willoughb. Rhytidectomy. Dermatologic Clinics 23, 415-430 (2005).

R.J. Choucair and S.T. Hamra. Extended superficial musculaponeurotic system dissection and composite rhytidectomy. Clinics in Plastic Surgery 35, 607-622 (2008).

R.J. Warren, S.J. Aston and B.C. Mendelson. Face lift. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 128, 747e-764e (2011).  

B.C. Mendelson. Cosmetic surgery for the ageing face. Australian Family Physician 21, 907-910, 913-915, 918-919 (1992).

J.C. Doucet et al. The presence of mandibular third molars during sagittal split osteotomies does not increase the risk of complications. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 70, 1935-1943 (2012).

B.N. Epker. Modification in sagittal osteotomy of the mandible. Journal of Oral Surgery 35, 157-159 (1977).

W.R. Proffit, T.A. Turvey and C. Phillips. Orthognathic surgery: a hierarchy of stability. International Journal of Adult Orthodontics and Orthognathic Surgery 11, 191-204 (1996).

Implants (craniofacial)

Textbooks

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

Infection (abscess, fistula)

Textbooks

R.G. Topazian, M.H. Goldberg and J.R. Hupp (eds.). Oral and Maxillofacial Infections. 4th ed., Saunders Philadelphia, 2002.

J.L.Jones and L.M. Candelaria. Head and Neck Infections. In: R.I. Fonseca (ed.) Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, volume 5, Saunders. Philadelphia, 2000.

D. Schlossberg (ed.). Infections of the Head and Neck. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

T.R. Flynn. Surgical management of orofacial infections. Atlas Oral and Maxillofacial Clinics of North America 8, 77-100 (2000).

D.M. Laskin and R.A. Strauss. Current concepts in the management of maxillofacial infections. Oral and Maxillofacial Clinics of North America 15, xi-xii (2003).

C. Rui-Feng, H. Li-Song H, Z. Ji-Bo and W. Li-Qiu. Emergency treatment on facial laceration of dog bite wounds with immediate primary closure: a prospective randomized trial study. BMC Emergency Medicine 13 (Suppl. 1) S2 (2013). doi: 10.1186/1471-227X-13-S1-S2.

J.A. Lindeboom, E.J. Kuijper, E.S. Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, R. Lindeboom and J.M. Prins. Surgical excision versus antibiotic treatment for nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis in children: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Clinical Infectious Diseases 15, 1057-1064 (2007).

J.A. Lindeboom, R. Lindeboom, E.S. Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, E.J. Kuijper J. Tuk and J.M.Prins. Esthetic outcome of surgical excision versus antibiotic therapy for nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis in children. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 28, 1028-1030 (2009).

P. Le Conte et al. Recognition and treatment of severe sepsis in the emergency department: retrospective study in two French teaching hospitals. BMC Emergency Medicine 17, 27 (2017). doi: 10.1186/s12873-017-0133-6

M. Singer et al. The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). Journal of the American Medical Association 315, 801-810 (2016). doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.0287

S.P.J. Macdonald et al. Sepsis in the emergency department – Part 1: Definitions and outcomes. Emergency Medicine Australasia (2017). doi: 10.1111/1742-6723.12886

F. Prechter et al. Sleeping with the enemy: Clostridium difficile infection in the intensive care unit. Critical Care 21, 260 (2017). doi: 10.1186/s13054-017-1819-6

A. Mirabile et al. Sepsis in head and neck cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and radiation: Literature review and consensus. Critical Reviews in Oncology / Hematology 95, 191-213 (2015).

J.E.Gotts and M.A. Matthay. Sepsis: pathophysiology and clinical management. British Medical Journal 353:i1585 (2016). doi: 10.1136/bmj.i1585

Jaw joint and facial pain, neuropathies

Textbooks

F.M. Dolwick and B. Sanders. TMJ internal derangement and arthrosis. Mosby, St. Louis, 1985.

J.Pedlar and J. Frame. Oral and maxillofacial surgery: an objective based textbook. Churchill-Livingstone, Edinburgh, 2001.

R. Gray and Z. Al-Ani. Temporomandibular Disorders: A Problem-Based Approach. Wiley, Chichester, 2011.

M. Milaro (ed.). Trigeminal Nerve Injuries, Springer, Heidelberg, New York, 2013.

Y. Sharav and R. Benoliel (eds.). Orofacial Pain and Headache. Elsevier, Edinburgh, London, 2008.

S.B. McMahon, M. Koltzenburg, I. Tracey and D. Turk (eds.). Wall and Melzack’s Textbook of Pain, 6th ed. Elsevier, Philadelphia, 2013.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

R. Baron, A. Binder and G. Wasner. Neuropathic pain: diagnosis, pathophysiological mechanisms, and treatment. Lancet Neurology 9, 807-819 (2010).

P. Coulthard et al. Interventions for iatrogenic inferior alveolar and lingual nerve injury (Review). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Review 4, CD005293 (2014). DOI: 10.1002/14651858. CD005293.pub2

M. Harris et al. Temporomandibular joint and orofacial pain: clinical and medicolegal management problems. British Dental Journal 174, 129-136 (1993).

J.T. Reston and C.M. Turkelson. Meta-analysis of surgical treatments for temporomandibular articular disorders. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 61, 3-10 (2003).

M.R. Idle et al. UK temporomandibular joint replacement database: report on baseline data. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 52, 203-207 (2014).

A. Arun et al. Nerve regeneration in vascularized composite allotransplantation: current strategies and future directions. Plastic and Aesthetic Research 2, 226-235 (2015).

A.M. Trescot. Cryoanalgesia in interventional pain management. Pain Physician 6, 345-360 (2003).

Necrosis (hard and soft tissues)

Textbooks

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

J. Zenga et al. Soft palate reconstruction after radionecrosis: Combined anterolateral thigh adipofascial and nasoseptal flaps. Auris Nasus Larynx, in press (2017).

N. Rommel et al. Surgical management of severe osteoradionecrosis of the mandibular bone by using double free flap reconstruction. Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 46, 148-154 (2018).

S. Delanian et al. Complete restoration of refractory mandibular osteordionecrosis by prolonged treatment with a pentoxifylline-tocopherol-clodronate combination (PENTOCLO): a phase II trial. International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics 80, 832-839 (2011).

A. Lyons and N. Ghazali. Osteoradionecrosis of the jaws: current understanding of its pathophysiology and treatment. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 46, 653-660 (2008).

N.M.H. McLeod et al. Pentoxifylline and tocopherol in the management of patients with osteoradionecrosis: the Portsmouth experience. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 50, 41-44 (2012).

N.M.H. McLeod et al. Bisphosphonate osteonecrosis of the jaw: a literature review of UK policies versus international policies on the management of bisphosphonate osteonecrosis of the jaw. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 49, 336-342 (2011).

M.S. Epstein et al. Management of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis: pentoxifylline and tocopherol in addition to antimicrobial therapy. An initial case series. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, Endodontology 110, 593-595 (2010).

J.A. Rivero, O. Shamji and A. Kolokythas. Osteoradionecrosis: a review of pathophysiology, prevention and pharmacologic management using pentoxifylline, α-tocopherol, and clodronate. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology 124, 464-471 (2017).

M. Martos-Fernández et al. Pentoxifylline, tocopherol and clodronate for the treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis: a systematic review. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology 125, 431-439 (2018).

F.J. Dieleman et al. The efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy related to the clinical stage of osteoradionecrosis of the mandible. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 46, 428-433 (2017).

A. Sultan et al. The Use of Hyperbaric Oxygen for the Prevention and Management of Osteoradionecrosis of the Jaw: A Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women’s Cancer Center Multidisciplinary Guideline. The Oncologist 22, 343-350 (2017).

T. Sønstevold et al. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment did not significantly affect radiation injury in the mandibular area of rats. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 125, 112-119 (2018).

A. Silva Martins et al. Relevant factors for the treatment outcome and time to healing in medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws – A retrospective cohort study. Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 45, 1736-1742 (2017).

T. Mücke et al. Free flap reconstruction for patients with bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaws after mandibulectomy. Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 44, 142-147 (2016).

B.L. Langdahl and S.H. Ralston. How Basic Science Discoveries Have Shaped the Treatment of Bone and Mineral Disorders. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 32, 2324-2330 (2017).

P. Poxleitner et al. The Prevention of Medication-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International 114, 63-69 (2017).

C. Hua et al. Interventions for necrotizing soft tissue infections in adults (Review). Chochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 5, Art. No. CD011680 (2018). DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD011680.pub.2

J. Dhanda, L. Rennie and R. Shaw. Current trends in the medical management of osteoradionecrosis using triple therapy. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 56, 401-405 (2018).

M.F. McCarty, J.H. O’Keefe and J.D. di Nicolantonio. Pentoxifylline for vascular health: a brief review of the literature. Open Heart 3:e000365 (2016).

G. Favia et al. Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: Surgical or non-surgical treatment? Oral Diseases 24, 238-242 (2018).

L. Ramaglia et al. Stage-specific therapeutic strategies of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the drug suspension protocol. Clinical Oral Investigations 22, 507-615 (2018).

M. Akashi et al. Differences between osteoradionecrosis and medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 22, 59-63 (2018).

K. Grisar et al. Osteoradionecrosis and medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: similarities and differences. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 45, 1592-1599 (2016).

M. Zirk et al. The impact of surgical intervention and antibiotics on MRONJ stage II and III – Retrospective study. Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 45, 1183-1189 (2017).

M. El-Rabbany et al. Effectiveness of treatments for medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Journal of the American Dental Association 148, 584-594 (2017).

S. Caldroney et al. Surgical resection and vascularized bone reconstruction in advanced stage medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 46, 871-876 (2017).

S. Hayashida et al. Evaluation of the treatment Strategies for Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (MRONJ) and the Factors Affecting Treatment Outcome: A Multicenter Retrospective Study with Propensity Score Matching Analysis. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 32, 2022-2029 (2017).

D. Danielsson et al. Quality of life after microvascular mandibular reconstruction for osteoradionecrosis – A prospective study. Head & Neck, 1-6 (2019).

N. Rommel et al. Surgical management of severe osteoradionecrosis of the mandibular bone by using double free flap reconstruction. Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 46, 148-154 (2018).

S. Otto et al. Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: Prevention, diagnosis and management in patients with cancer and bone metastases. Cancer Treatment Reviews 69, 177-187 (2018).

S. Aljohani et al. Osteonecrosis of the jaw in patients treated with denusomab: A multicentre case series. Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 46, 1515-1525 (2018).

J. Dhanda, L. Rennie and R. Shaw. Current trends in the medical management of osteoradionecrosis using triple therapy. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 56, 401-405 (2018).

R. Shaw et al. HOPON (Hyperbaric Oxygen for the Prevention of Osteoreadionecrosis): a randomised controlled trial of hyperbaric oxygen to prevent osteoradionecrosis of the irradiated mandible: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials 19:22 (2018).

Postoperative problems

Textbooks

D.W. Eisele and R.V. Smith (eds.). Complications in Head and Neck Surgery, 2nd ed., Mosby Elsevier, Philadelphia, 2009.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

Preprosthetic surgery

Textbooks

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

Reconstruction

Textbooks

M.L. Urken (ed.). Multidisciplinary Head & Neck Reconstruction. A Defect-Oriented Approach, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 2010.

M.L. Urken et al. Atlas of the regional and free flaps for head and neck reconstruction, 2nd ed., Wolters Kluwer, Baltimore, 2012.

K.D. Wolff and F. Hölzle. Raising of microvascular flaps: a systematic approach, 2nd ed., Springer, Berlin, 2011.

R. Fernandes. Local and Regional Flaps in Head & Neck Reconstruction, Wiley Blackwell, Oxford, 2014.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

S. Ariyan. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flap. A versatile flap for reconstruction in the head and neck. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 63, 73-81 (1979).

A. Milenovic et al. The pectoralis major flap in head and neck reconstruction: first 500 patients. Journal of Craniomaxillofacial Surgery 34, 340-343 (2006).

H. Chim et al. Principles of head and neck reconstruction: an algorithm to guide flap selection. Seminars on Plastic Surgery 24, 148-154 (2010).

P. Orba et al. The reconstructive matrix: a new paradigm in reconstructive plastic surgery. Plastic Reconstructive Surgery 126, 492-498 (2010).

B.T. Goh et al. Mandibular reconstruction in adults: a review. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 37, 597-605 (2008).

F. Hölzle, C. Mohr and K.-D. Wolff. Reconstructive Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International 105, 815-822 (2008).

D.A. Barker et al. Multilayer cell-seeded polymer nanofiber constructs for soft-tissue reconstruction. The Journal of the American Medical Association, Otolaryngology Head Neck Surgery 139, 914-922 (2013).

T. Mücke et al. Free flap reconstruction for patients with bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaws after mandibulectomy. Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 44, 142-147 (2016).

B.A. Anvar, B.C. Evans and G.R. Evans. Lip reconstruction. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 120, 57e-64e (2007).

P. Yu. Characteristics of the anterolateral thigh flap in a Western population and its application in head and neck reconstruction. Head & Neck 26, 759-769 (2004).

C.H. Huang et al. Comparison of the radial forearm flap and the thinned anterolateral thigh cutaneous flap for reconstruction of tongue defects: an evaluation of donor-site morbidity. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 114, 1704-1710 (2004).

E.W. Bodde et al. Donor-site morbidity after free vascularized autogenous fibular transfer: subjective and quantitative analyses. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 111, 2237-2242 (2003).

N. Choi et al. Scapular Tip Free Flap for Head and Neck Reconstruction. Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology 8, 422-429 (2015).

Salivary gland problems

Textbooks

R.A.Cawson, M.J.Gleeson and J.W.Eveson. Pathology and surgery of the salivary glands. Isis Medical Media, Oxford, 1997.

E.R. Carlson and R.A. Ord (eds.). Salivary Gland Pathology, Diagnosis and Management, 2nd ed., Wiley Blackwell, 2015.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

G. Bavikatte , P. L. Sit and A. Hassoon. Management of Drooling of Saliva. British Journal of Medical Practitioners 5(1), a507 (2012).

W.G. Albergotti, S.A. Nguyen, J. Zenk and M.B. Gillespie. Extracapsular dissection for benign parotid tumours: a meta-analysis. Laryngoscope 122, 1954-1960 (2012).

R.R. Cuiman, W. Oels, R. Jaussi and P. Dost. Outcome, general and symptom-specific quality of life after various types of parotid resection. Laryngoscope 122, 1254-1261 (2012).

A.J. Sood et al. Facial Nerve Monitoring during Paridectomy. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery 152, 631-637 (2015).

Trauma, hard and soft tissues / fractures and soft tissue damage

Textbooks

N. Rowe and J. Williams. Maxillofacial injuries. Volumes I and II, Churchill-Livingstone, Edinburgh. 1985.

M. Yaremchuk, J. Gruss and P. Manson. Rigid fixation of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton. Butterworth-Heinemann, 1992.

I. Greaves, K. Porter and J. Ryan. Trauma care manual. Arnold. London, 2001.

M. Perry and S. Holmes (eds.). Atlas of Operative Maxillofacial Trauma Surgery – primary repair of facial injuries. Springer, Heidelberg, Berlin, 2015.

J.P. Wardrope and A.R. Smith. The management of wounds and burns. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1990.

C. Stone. Plastic surgery: facts. Greenwich Medical Media, London, 2001.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

K. Abdel-Galil and R. Loukota. Fractures of the mandibular condyle: evidence base and current concepts of management. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 48, 520-526 (2010).

P.D. Benson et al. The use of immediate bone grafting in reconstruction of clinically infected mandibular fractures: bone grafts in the presence of pus. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 64, 122-126 (2006).

P. Mehra, E. van Heulekom and D.A. Cottrell. Rigid internal fixation of infected mandibular fractures. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 67, 1046-1051 (2009).

D.A. Mitchell. A multicentre audit of unilateral fractures of the mandibular condyle. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 35, 230-236 (1997).

M.F. Zide and J.N. Kent. Indications for open reduction of mandibular condyle fractures. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 41, 89-98 (1983).

A.R. Cobb, N.O. Jeelani and P.R. Ayliffe. Orbital fractures in children. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 45, 41-46 (2013).

D. Coletti and R.A. Ord. Treatment rationale for pathological fractures of the mandible: a series of 44 fractures. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 37, 215-222 (2008).

J.J. Downie et al. Prospective study of morbidity associated with open reduction and internal fixation of the fractured condyle by the transparotid approach. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 47, 370-373 (2009).

U. Eckelt et al. Open versus closed treatment of fractures of the mandibular condylar process: a prospective randomised multi-centre study. Journal of Craniomaxillofacial Surgery 34, 306-314 (2006).

E. Ellis. Treatment methods for fractures of the mandibular angle. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 28, 243-252 (1999).

E. Ellis et al. Surgical complications with open treatment of mandibular condylar process fractures. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 58, 950-958 (2000).

A.J.L. Gear et al. Treatment modalities for mandibular angle fractures. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 63, 655-663 (2005).

H.G. Luhr et al. Results of treatment of fractures of the atrophic edentulous mandible by compression plating: a retrospective evaluation of 84 consecutive cases. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 54, 250-254 (1996).

B.T. Evans and A.A.C. Webb. Post-traumatic orbital reconstruction: anatomical landmarks and the concept of the deep orbit. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 45, 183-189 (2007).

G. Kovacs and N. Sowers. Airway Management in Trauma. Emergency Management Clinics of North America 36, 61-84 (2018).

M. Perry. Maxillofacial trauma: developments, innovations and controversies. Injury 40, 1252-1259 (2009).

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) clinical guideline 56. Head injury: triage, assessment, investigation and early management of head injury in infants, children and adults. National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care (2007).

Managing bites from humans and other mammals. Drugs and Therapeutics Bulletin 42, 67-70 (2004).

C.L. Allonby-Neve and C.D. Okereke. Current management of facial wounds in UK accident and emergency departments. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 88, 144-150 (2006).

F. Ardeshirpour, D.A. Shaye and P.A. Hilger. Improving posttraumatic facial scars. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America 46, 867-991 (2013).

G. Favia et al. Accelerated wound healing of oral soft tissues and angiogenic effect induced by a pool of amino acids combined to sodium hyaluronate (AMINOGAM). Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents 22, 109-116 (2008).

K.L. Rieck, W.J. Fillmore and K.S. Ettinger. Late revision or correction of facial trauma-related soft tissue deformities. Oral and Maxillofacial Clinics of North America 25, 697-713 (2013).

Trismus

Textbooks

M. Kapre and S. Kothe. Surgery of Trismus in Oral Submucous Fibrosis: An Atlas. Springer Science + Business Media, 2018.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

A.D. Rapidis, P.U. Dijkstra, J.L.N. Roodenburg, J.P. Rodrigo, A. Rinaldo, P. Strojan, R.P. Takes and A. Ferlito. Trismus in patients with head and neck cancer: etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and management. Clinical Otolaryngology 40, 516-526 (2015).

M.J. Garnett, F.S. Nohl and S.C. Barclay. Management of patients with reduced oral aperture and mandibular hypomobility (trismus) and implications for operative dentistry. British Dental Journal 204, 125-131 (2008).

D.M. Hartl et al. Botulinum toxin for radiation-induced facial pain and trismus. Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery 138, 459-463 (2008).

D.H. Shulman et al. Treating trismus with dynamic splinting: a cohort, case series. Advances in Therapy 25, 9-16 (2008).

Tumour (metastases, haematological, other)

Textbooks

W.G. Jiang and R.E. Mansel (eds.). Cancer Metastasis, Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms and Clinical Intervention. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York, 2004.

J. Myers (ed.). Oral Cancer Metastasis. Springer, New York, 2010.

J.A. Werner and R.K. Davis (eds.). Metastases in Head and Neck Cancer. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2004.

J.P. Harris and M.H. Weisman (eds.). Head and Neck Manifestations of Systemic Disease. Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, 2007.

R.A.J. Spence, R. Hay and P. Johnston (eds.). Infection in the cancer patient – a practical guide. Oxford University Press Inc., New York 2006.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

C. Galy-Bernadoy and R. Garrel. Head and neck soft-tissue sarcoma in adults. European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck diseases 133, 37–42 (2016).

L.-V. Vassiliou et al. Head and neck sarcomas: A single institute series. Oral Oncology 65, 16-22 (2017).

R.W.F. Breakey et al. The surgical management of head and neck sarcoma: The Newcastle experience. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery 70, 78-84 (2017).

B. Tudor-Green, R. Gomez and P.A. Brennan. Current update on the diagnosis and management of head and neck soft tissue sarcomas. Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine 46, 674-679 (2017).

M. Zacher et al. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the skin: a comprehensive review on diagnosis and treatment. Medical Oncology 35, 135 (2018).

A. Arshi, B.A. Tajudeen and M.St. John. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the head and neck: Demographics, clinicopathologic features, management, and treatment outcomes. Oral Oncology 51, 1088-1094 (2015).

A. Kanatas et al. Schwannomas of the head and neck. Oncology Reviews 3, 107-111 (2012).

Z.Y. Wang et al. Facial and lower cranial nerve function preservation in lateral approach for craniocervical schwannomas. European Archives of Otorhinolaryngology 272, 2207-2212 (2015).

R. Patlola et al. Carotid body tumour. International Journal of Cardiology 143, e7-e10 (2010).

B.J. Davidson et al. Posterior triangle metastases of squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. American Journal of Surgery 166, 395-398 (1993).

R. Lindberg. Distribution of cervical lymph node metastases from squamous cell carcinoma of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts. Cancer 29, 1446-1449 (1972).

R.P. Takes et al. Distant metastases from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, Part I. Basic aspects. Oral Oncology 48, 775-779 (2012).

R. de Bree et al. Distant metastases from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, Part II. Diagnosis. Oral Oncology 48, 780-786 (2012).

M. Haigentz Jr. et al. Distant metastases from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, Part II. Treatment. Oral Oncology 48, 787-793 (2012).

A. Ferlito et al. Changing concepts in the surgical management of the cervical node metastasis. Oral Oncology 39, 429-435 (2003).

B. Green et al. Current surgical management of metastases in the neck from mucosal squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 54, 135-140 (2016).

S.C. Kaste et al. Impact of Radiation and Chemotherapy on Risk of Dental Abnormalities. Cancer 5817-5827 (2009).

M.-C. Valéra et al. Oral complications and dental care in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine 44, 483-489 (2015).

B. Oronsky et al. A review of Clinical Radioprotection and Chemoprotection for Oral Mucositis. Translational Oncology 11, 771-778 (2018).

P.J. Stiff et al. Long-Term Safety Outcome in Patients with Hematological Malignancies Undergoing Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation treated with Palifermin to Prevent Oral Mucositis. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 22, 164-169 (2016).

F. Mazhari, A.S. Shirazi and M. Shabzendehdar. Management of oral mucositis in paediatric patients receiving cancer therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatric Blood & Cancer 66:327402 (2019).

Vascular abnormalities

Textbooks

R. Mattassi, D.A. Loose and M. Vaghi (eds.). Hemangioma and Vascular Malformations. An Atlas of Diagnosis and Treatments, 2nd ed., Springer Milano Heidelberg, 2015.

Y.-W. Kim, B.-B. Lee, W.F. Yakes and Y.-S. Do. Congenital Vascular Malformations: A Comprehensive Review of Current Management, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2017.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

S.C. Nair. Vascular Anomalies of the Head and Neck Region. Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery 17, 1-12 (2018).

S.E.R. Horbach et al. Sclerotherapy for low-flow vascular malformations of the head and neck: A systematic review of sclerosing agents. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery 69, 295-304 (2016).

M. Sadick et al. Interdisciplinary Management of Head and Neck Vascular Anomalies: Clinical Presentation, Diagnostic Findings and Minimalinvasive Therapy. European Journal of Radiology Open 4, 63-68 (2017).

L.M. Buckmiller, G.T. Richter and J.Y. Sun. Diagnosis and management of hemangioma and vascular malformations of the head and neck. Oral Diseases 16, 405-418 (2010).

C. Léauté-Labrèze, J.I. Harper and P.H. Hoeger. Infantile haemangioma. Lancet 390, 85-94 (2017).

W.A. Wohlgemuth et al. Ethanolgel sclerotherapy of venous malformations improves health-related quality-of-life in adults and children – results of a prospective study. European Journal of Radiology 27, 2482-2488 (2017).

H. Lackner et al. Sirolimus for the treatment of children with various complicated vascular anomalies. European Journal of Pediatrics 174, 1579-1594 (2015).

Xerostomia

Textbooks

G. Carpenter (ed.). Dry Mouth – A Clinical Guide on Causes, Effects and Treatments. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015.

Journal articles (peer reviewed literature)

V. Mercadante, A.al Hamad, G. Lodi, S. Porter and S. Fedele. Interventions for the management of radiotherapy-induced xerostomia and hyposalivation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Oral Oncology 66, 64-74 (2017).

S.A. Bhide. A.B. Miah, K.J. Harrington, K.L. Newbold and C.M. Nutting. Radiation-induced Xerostomia: Pathophysiology, Prevention and Treatment. Clinical Oncology 21, 737-744 (2009).

S.B. Jensen et al. A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies: prevalence, severity and impact on quality of life. Support Care Cancer 18, 1039-1060 (2010).

S.B. Jensen et al. A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies: management strategies and economic impact. Support Care Cancer 18, 1061-1079 (2010).

I. Thorne and N. Sutcliffe. Sjögren’s syndrome. British Journal of Hospital Medicine 78, 438-442 (2017).

M. Ramos-Casals, A.G. Tzioufas, J.H. Stone, A. Sisó and X. Bosch. Treatment of Primary Sjögren Syndrome. A Systematic Review. Journal of the American Medical Association 304, 452-460 (2010).

R. Pinna, G. Campus, E. Cumbo, I. Mura and E. Milia. Xerostomia induced by radiotherapy: an overview of the physiopathology, clinical evidence, and management of the oral damage. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 11, 171-188 (2015).

A.A. Owosho et al. The role of parotid gland irradiation in the development of severe hyposalivation (xerostomia) after intensity-modulated radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: Temporal patterns, risk factors, and testing the QUANTEC guidelines. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 45, 595-600 (2017).

C.M. Nutting et al. Parotid-sparing intensity modulated versus conventional radiotherapy in head and neck cancer (PARSPORT): a phase 3 multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncology 12, 127-136 (2011).

T.H. Wasserman et al. Influence of intravenous amifostine on xerostomia, tumor control, and survival after readiotherapy for head and neck cancer: 2 year follow-up of a prospective, randomized, phase III trial. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 63, 985-990 (2005).

A. Eisbruch. Amifostine in the Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer: Intravenous Administration, Subcutaneous Administration, or None of the Above. Journal of Clinical Oncology 29, 119-121 (2011).

D.N. Silva Marques et al. Effects of gustatory stimulants of salivary secretion on salivary pH and flow in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine 40, 785-792 (2011).

J. Gu et al. Effect of amifostine in head and neck cance patients treated with radiotherapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials. PloS One 9, 95068 (2014).

G.C. Jaguar et al. Double blind randomized prospective trial of bethanechol in the preventon of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction in head and neck cancer patients. Radiotherapy and Oncology 115, 253-256 (2015).

A.J. Sood et al. Salivary gland transfer to prevent radiation-induced xerostomia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Oral Oncology 50, 77-83 (2014).

J.R. Verrone et al. Impact of intraoral stent on the side effects of radiotherapy for oral cancer. Head and Neck 35, 213-217 (2013).


Extracts and modified extracts of D.A.Mitchell and A.N. Kanatas; An Introduction to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2nd Ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, © by D.A.Mitchell, 2015, have been reproduced in some subsections of A-Z of surgery with permission of the author.